Les principes de la photographie aérienne

Les principes de la photographie aérienne

La photographie a toujours été un outil incontournable utilisé dans le monde médiatique. A part son rôle qui est d’enregistrer les moments forts de la vie, elle a également comme rôle d’informer, de capter et d’inciter les lecteurs à apprécier l’article qu’elle décore. Parmi toutes les techniques de prise connues, la prise de vue aérienne fait partie des plus fascinantes.

Qu’est-ce que la photographie aérienne ?

Cette technique de photographie a vu le jour vers les années 1850 par l’aéronaute français Félix Nadar. Elle consiste à prendre des photos depuis le ciel dans le but de capturer un ensemble de paysage plus étendu de la surface de la terre souvent dans le but d’analyser l’environnement terrestre.

En gros, les photos ou les vidéos aériennes  sont la réalisation d’une prise qui suit la verticale à l’aide d’un aéronef tel qu’un avion ou d’autre objet volant et particulièrement avec un appareil évoquant une image extrêmement précise. Les images capturées nous donnent une vue différente des photos prisent sur la surface terrestre, car on obtient un panorama horizontal des objets photographiés.

Par ailleurs, la photo aérienne peut être aussi faite avec une prise de vue verticale, c’est-à-dire, capturer une cible en parallèle. On pense notamment à la capture en photo d’un oiseau en vol.

Comment prendre des photos aériennes ?

Les techniques de prise de photo aérienne ont évolué avec la technologie. Au début, les photographes n’avaient le choix que de se déplacer avec les aéronefs tels que l’avion ou la montgolfière pour obtenir le résultat recherché. Par contre aujourd’hui, nous pouvons envoyer l’appareil dans le ciel en le guidant depuis l’espace terrestre avec un drone.

La méthode varie selon le résultat recherché. Cependant, les principales règles à suivre sont les suivantes :

  •         Les pellicules utilisées pour photographier à l’air sont en général le noir et blanc. Les pellicules en couleur ou à infrarouge sont utilisées pour des projets exceptionnels.
  •         Mesurer la distance focale de manière détaillée après que l’appareil utilisé soit étalonné. Lorsque la distance focale augmente, la difformité de l’image diminue.
  •         Au niveau de l’échelle, un fragment de 1km équivaut généralement à 4 cm sur une photo. Ce qui donne une échelle de 1/25000.

Pourquoi opter pour la prise de vue du ciel ?

La prise de vue du ciel nous réserve plusieurs intérêts que ce soit pour les amateurs ou les professionnels.

  •         Au niveau professionnel, elle augmente l’optimisation des performances. Un atout incontournable sur le plan esthétique d’un projet.
  •         Avec une prise de vue de qualité assurée par un appareil professionnel, elle présente une perspective globale d’une vaste zone.
  •         Facilite le traçage des canaux de drainage de surface et près de la surface.
  •         Certaines topographies et éléments artificiels rarement liés sur terrain deviennent évidents dans les photos aériennes.
  •         Le sol et les formations rocheuses sont vus et évalués facilement dans leur état non agité

Les itinéraires pour les enquêtes sur terrain, les programmes d’exploration de surface et de subsurface peuvent être établis profitablement.

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